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Shivani Acharya

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

12 October 2021

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a broad term used to describe a group of developmental disorders of the nervous system. These barriers are characterized by communication and social interaction problems. People with ASD usually show limited, repetitive, and stereotyped interests or behaviours. It is found in people all over the world, regardless of race, culture, or economic origin. According to reliable sources from the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), autism is more common in boys than girls, and the ratio of women is 4:1. There is evidence that the number of ASA cases has increased. Some people attribute this increase to environmental factors. However, experts dispute whether there is a real increase in cases or just more frequent diagnoses.

In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association changed the term autism to autism spectrum disorder. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder characterized by: Difficulties in social communication, including verbal and nonverbal communication; and speech defects in social interactions. , Repeated behaviour patterns, and sensory problems. Many people with ASD may have delayed or lack language development, intellectual disability, poor motor coordination, and attention deficit disorder.




Symptoms of autism usually manifest in young children between 12 and 24 months of age; however, symptoms may appear sooner or later. The initial symptoms may be a significant delay in language or social development. The symptoms of autism fall into two categories.


  • Problems with communication and social interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviours or behaviour patterns. Communication and social interaction problems include communication problems, including difficulties in sharing emotions, sharing interests, or one-way conversations; oral communication. Problems with maintaining eye contact or reading body language, and difficulties in establishing and maintaining relationships.


  • Restricted or repetitive behaviours or action patterns include: repetitive actions, or speech patterns. Strictly abide by certain conventions or behaviours: Increase or decrease sensitivity to certain sensory information in the environment, such as negative reactions to certain legitimate fixed interests or problems. Individuals are rated in each category, and the severity of their problem is indicated by symptoms. To be diagnosed with ASD, a person must have all three symptoms in the first category and at least two symptoms in the second category.

Causes of Autism


The exact cause of ASA is unclear. Recent research shows that there is no single reason. Suspected risk factors for autism include: Close family members with autism. Gene mutation Fragile X syndrome and other genetic diseases of elderly parents, low birth weight, metabolic imbalance, exposure to heavy metals and environmental toxins, history of viral infection, fetal exposure to valproic acid or thalidomide (Thalomid) from National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS), genetics and environment can determine whether a person will develop autism. However, various old and new sources have concluded that the disease is not caused by the vaccine. A controversial 1998 study showed a link between autism and the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR). However, this study was discredited by other studies and was eventually withdrawn in 2010.



There are no "cures" for autism, but therapies and other treatment considerations can help people feel better or relieve their symptoms. Many treatment approaches include therapies such as: behaviour therapy game therapy occupational therapy, physiotherapy, speech therapy, massages, weighted blankets and clothing, and meditation techniques that can also have relaxing effects. However, treatment outcomes vary. Some people on the spectrum may respond well to certain approaches while others may not.


Impact of diet on Autism

People with ASD do not have a special diet; however, some proponents of autism see dietary changes as a way to reduce behavioural problems and improve the overall quality of life. One of the foundations of the autism diet is to avoid artificial additives such as preservatives. Conversely, an autistic diet may focus on whole foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables, lean poultry, fish, unsaturated fats, and plenty of water. Protein is mostly found in wheat, barley, and other grains. These proponents believe that gluten can cause inflammation and side effects in some ASA patients. However, scientific research has failed to provide a clear link between autism, gluten, and another protein called casein. Some studies and anecdotal evidence suggest that diet may help improve symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a disease similar to autism.

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