Nishi Sheth

Hi, myself nishi sheth from 4th year PharmD.My interest for writing and spreading awareness is my main goal through this platform.


15 September 2021

Bacteremia refers to the transient presence of organisms in the blood ( generally without causing symptoms) as a result of local infection or penetrating injury. septicemia is reserved for the clinical picture that results from the systemic inflammatory response to infection.


PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: polymorphonuclear leucocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes, which release inflammatory mediators, including TNF, IL-1, platelet-activating factor, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon which leads to symptoms like fever, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate, and hypotension.



40% cases- caused by gram-positive bacteria

60% cases- caused by gram-negative bacteria

Fungi - less common


Risk factor:

  • Infection in chest

  • Urinary tract infection

  • IV drug use

  • Hospitalized patients

Clinical presentation:

  • Fever , rigors and hypotension

  • Lrthargy, headache

  • minor change in conscious level.

  • Waterhouse-friedrischsen syndrome ( caused by niesseria meningitidis) which shows skin rash, shock, and adrenal hemorrhage

  • stapylococci- produce endotoxin called toxic shock syndrome ( causing fever, rash, diarrhoea and shock)


  • Blood count

  • Serum electrolytes

  • Liver biochemistry

  • Blood culture

  • chest radiograph


  • Antibiotic therapy is the most appropriate for the probable site of origin of sepsis in accordance with local antibiotic policies.

  • Therapy should subsequently be rationalized on the basis of culture and sensitivity results.

  • In severe sepsis and septic shock, attention should be paid to fluid resuscitation and often the patient will be best managed in critical care environment .





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