Rukhsar Shaikh

A person who is always up for an adventure. Traveling, seeing new places meeting new people has always been a crucial part of my life every part of the world every person has a different story to tell. The adventure that I have completed till now is the highest Bungee Jumping available in India 83 meters, paragliding from Asia’s highest points while looking over the Himalayas, river rafting, and many more adventure awaits.

Ovarian Cancer And Its Types

27 July 2021

Ovaries are defined as almond-sized organs present on both sides of the uterus. It is responsible for storing eggs and making hormones in the female body. Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate and is one of the most common gynecologic cancers. The exact cause of ovarian cancer is still unknown. However, it is assumed that it can be passed down genetically or as a result of lifestyle choices.

Types of Ovarian Cancer

1. Epithelial:

It is the most common type to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer. It takes place on the surface of the ovaries (the epithelium) of the fallopian tube. Fallopian tube cancer or Peritoneal cancer also comes under this type.


2. Germ Cell

This type of cancer develops in egg-producing cells. It is a rare type of ovarian cancer. Females between 10 to 29 years of age are when it typically occurs.


3. Stromal cell

It developed in the connective tissue cells called granulosa and theca cells, which hold the ovaries together.  Over 90% of these stromal tumors are called granulosa cell tumors, either adult or childhood types. Granulosa cell tumors may secrete estrogen, resulting in unusual vaginal bleeding at the time of diagnosis. Other types are Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors and steroid cell tumors.


4. Small cell carcinoma

Small cell carcinoma is an extremely rare ovarian cancer. Cancer comes from epithelial, germ cells, or stromal cells yet hasn’t been derived.


Stages of ovarian cancer

Stage 1: cancer is limited to either one or both ovaries.

Stage 2: cancer is spread to one or both ovaries as well as some else in the pelvis

Stage 3: In this stage, cancer has spread through the pelvis and reached some parts of the abdomen

Stage 4: Growth of cancer involves one or both ovaries and distant metastases (spread of cancer to organs located outside of the peritoneal cavity) have occurred. Finding ovarian cancer cells in pleural fluid (from the cavity which surrounds the lungs) is also evidence of stage IV disease.


Symptoms and signs

It is difficult to detect or find signs of ovarian cancer. Until it reaches some advanced stages, cancer detection is fairly difficult. Only 20% of ovarian cancer is detected at an early stage. This is possible because the symptoms aren’t noticeable in the early stage or it seems similar to digestive distress or minor stomach ache.


The most common signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer are:

  • Bloating

  • Pelvic or abdominal pain

  • Early satiety (feeling full quickly) or difficulty eating

  • A need to urinate frequently or urgently

Less common ovarian cancer symptoms include:

  • Back pain

  • Extreme tiredness

  • Weight loss

  • Pain during sex

  • Acid reflux

  • Constipation or upset stomach

  • Unusual belly swelling

  • Menstrual changes

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