Sneha Anil Jadhav
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Link between thyroid and Pregnancy

1 January 2022

Thyroid disease is a common term for a condition that keeps your thyroid from producing the right amount of hormones. Your thyroid usually produces hormones that keep your body functioning normally. Thyroid disease in women is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid in women. This condition can have a profound effect on pregnancy and the baby. It is also called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Thyroid hormones are needed for proper metabolism, growth, and homeostasis.

The thyroid gland, which is located in the neck, secretes about 15 to 20 grams of hormones each day. Symptoms of thyroid disorders include overproduction or underproduction of these hormones.

The most common thyroid problems include:

Hyperthyroidism: This condition is caused when there is an abnormal / excessive production of thyroid hormones.

Hypothyroidism: This disorder occurs when there is not enough production of thyroid hormones.

Hypothyroidism occurs at any age but is most common in older adults, where it can be subtle and difficult to detect. Hypothyroidism is possible

• Primary: Causes thyroid disease

• Secondary: Causes disease in the hypothalamus or pituitary

 

Thyroid dysfunction disrupts the natural balance of reproductive hormones that are essential for easy pregnancy and healthy pregnancy. Sometimes there is a link between hypothyroidism where, you have an underactive thyroid and female genital mutilation. With hypothyroidism, your thyroid does not produce enough essential hormones. Low thyroid hormones can interfere with the release of an egg from your uterus (ovulation), which interferes with childbirth. In addition, some of the main causes of hypothyroidism. such as autoimmune or pituitary disorders may interfere with fertility.

Hormonal changes throughout the body that can be caused by hypothyroidism (thyroid dysfunction) can lead to irregular menstrual cycles and other menstrual problems that can affect fertility. Both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid) are known to prevent ovulation, a monthly process in which an egg is released to fertilize. If no egg is released, you cannot get pregnant, even if you are menstruating regularly.

 

Pregnancy: Hypothyroidism in a pregnant woman leads to an increase in the level of anemia, preeclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage, spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, and abnormal growth of the baby's brain. Antithyroid drugs cross the placenta. Both PTU and methimazole are in the D stage of pregnancy, but are considered safe and preferred therapies of your choice during pregnancy because their benefits outweigh the potential risks to the baby. An unintended thyroid condition can make it difficult to conceive. It can also cause problems during pregnancy itself. If an overactive or underactive thyroid is under control, however, there is no reason why you should not get pregnant successfully with a healthy baby.

 

Symptoms of low levels or progesterone dysfunction include:

• A shorter or longer cycle than your normal menstrual cycle

• Less or less bleeding than usual

• Windows that are longer or shorter bleeding than normal for you

Childbirth is not something that only concerns women. Mental disorders in men can also affect the birth of a couple. Thyroid dysfunction can damage sperm quality and motility, making it harder for sperm to enter the egg to be implanted.

Diagnosis of hypothyroidism is done by two methods, Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) & Free thyroxine (T4)

The right treatment will cure the disease. so be aware about your health. However, you can usually live a normal life with a thyroid disease.

 

References:

1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thyroid_disease_in_women#Treatment_during_pregnancy

2.https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/female-infertility/expert-answers/hypothyroidism-and-infertility/faq-20058311#:~:text=Low%20levels%20of%20thyroid%20hormone,pituitary%20disorders%20%E2%80%94%20may%20impair%20fertility.

3. https://www.endocrineweb.com/thyroid-disorders-fertility

4. https://www.everydayhealth.com/thyroid-conditions/thyroid-issues-and-fertility.aspx

5.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657979/#:~:text=Hormone%20therapy%20with%20thyroxine%20is,to%201%20year%20of%20therapy.

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