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vitamin B-complex deficiency

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25 Aug 2021

vitamin-B complex vitamins are water-soluble vitamins. these include riboflavin, B12, niacin, B5, B6, biotic and folic acid). These vitamins are not generally stored in the human body in excessive quantities, if ingested get excreted in the urine. Each vitamin B complex has a unique structure and performs unique functions in the body.

1. Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 is also called thiamine. it causes dry and wet beriberi in deficiency states. it is most common in people feeding on white rice which constitutes carbohydrates. symptoms include fatigue, irritability, poor memory, sleep disturbances, and abdominal pain. sign and symptoms include:

  • Dry beriberi- lower extremities are affected, muscle cramps, pain in legs, and continued deficiency lead to polyneuropathy.

  • Wet beriberi- myocardial disease, vasodilation, if continued heart failure.

  • Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome: seen in patients who drink alcohol regularly.

2. Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is a cofactor of certain enzymes and it is available in milk, green leafy vegetables, cereals, and pulses. it is also known as riboflavin. it resembles through skin features like angular stomatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, watering of eyes, photophobia, and blurring of eyes.


3. Vitamin B3

Dietary niacin deficiency shows signs and symptoms as 3D (diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia. dementia includes depression irritability and delirium. Diarrhea is associated with anorexia, nausea andvommiting.It caused pallegra commonly seen in developing countries.


3. Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 includes pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine. they are metabolized in the body to pyridoxal phosphate, which acts as a coenzyme in many important reactions in blood, CNS and skin metabolism. But this deficiency is rare because it is found in all foods. it is important in heme and nucleic acid biosynthesis and in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mostly Vit B 6 supplementation is given as management.


4. Vitamin B12

Also, know as cyanocobalamin. it is the most complex and stable vitamin molecule which is active in bone marrow, CNS, and GI tract. it is involved in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism. A cobalamine coenzyme is important for the synthesis of DNA and metabolites of folates. In India, vitamin B12 deficiency is most prominent. If found in pregnancy can lead to fetal defects. Those patients who suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency also suffer from folate deficiency. The recommended daily allowance for B12 is 1 ug/day for all individuals. pregnant women and lactating women should have 1.2 and 1.5 ug/ day. A proper diet consisting of various food sources if taken regularly, then the subclinical deficiencies can be managed. Average 1 to 3 months should be continued.


5. Vitamin B7

it is also known as biotin. leads to dermatitis and enteritis. 100 units/day. it is found in foods such as raw egg yolk, liver peanuts and leafy green vegetables.


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