ARISTOLOCHIA INDICA : (traditional antidote for snakebites)
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The aqueous extract of the roots of Aristolochia indica is used as a decoction for the ailment of a number of diseases including snake bite treatment. Though the alcoholic extract of the different parts of the plant are well studied, information on the aqueous extract is limited. We have estimated aristolochic acid, different enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and anti-snake venom potency of its root extract.
aristolochia indica is a medicinal plant which is mainly useful in the ayurvedic preparation in the formulation as a bitter tonic preparation of antiodote for snake bites.the formulation of bitter tonic was extracted from the dried root of aristolochia indica .
Ayurvedic name Isharmu
lUnani name Zarawand
Hindi name Kiramar
English name The Indian BirthwortTrade nameIshar-mul
Parts used Leaves and Roots.
Aristolochia indica is a perennial creeper with a woody rootstock.
Leaves are alternate, entire with more or less undulate margins, somewhat cordate, acuminate or obovate.
Flowers constitute of greenish-white or light purplish perianth with inflorescence in axillary cymes or fascicles, 1-2 lipped, hairy within limbs dilated.
Stamens are six in number, adnate and filaments are not distinguishable from the style.
Anthers are adnate to column and carpel is six locular with two ovules.
The flowers are usually foetid in odour.
Fruit is globose, oblong, septicidal, six valved capsule and opening from below upwards.
Seeds are many in number, flat and winged
Plant is distributed in lower hills and plains of India, Bengal and Assam.
Climate and Soil
It grows in warm and moist climate, with temperature ranging from 20ºC to 33º C, and annual rainfall ranging 100-150 cm and spread out to a greater part of the year.
It can also be cultivated over well drained sandy- loam soil rich in organic matter.
It needs irrigation at lower elevation where rainfall is low
pytochemical components presents inthe aristolochia india
1)The aristolochic acid content of the root extract is 3.08±1.88×10−3 mg/ml.
2)The extract possesses strong gelatinolytic,
5) nuclease activities together with l-amino acid oxidase
6)protease inhibitory potencies.
Partial proteomic studies indicated presence of starch branching enzymes as major protein constituent of the extract.
theraputic observation of aristoliochia indica
The aristolochic acid content of the root extract is 3.08±1.88×10−3 mg/ml. The extract possesses strong gelatinolytic, collagenase, peroxidase and nuclease activities together with l-amino acid oxidase and protease inhibitory potencies. Partial proteomic studies indicated presence of starch branching enzymes as major protein constituent of the extract.The extract did not show any acute and sub-chronic toxicity in animals at lower doses, but high dose causes liver and kidney damage. The extract elongated duration of survival of animals after application of Russell's viper venom.
Considering the low aristolochic acid content of the extract, its consumption for a short time at moderate dose does not appear to cause serious toxicity. Strong inhibition of l-amino acid oxidase may give partial relief from snake bite after topical application of the extract.
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