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Coffee and it's compounds

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18 Jul 2021

Almost every individuals daily dose of beverage is coffee. Over 1 billion individuals in the world consume coffee everyday. The aroma and taste it offer's is just commendable which relaxes our brain to great extent. Coffee is used as a solution for many of our problems like headache, depression,bad mood, to stay awake, to energize and what not. We get to come across individuals who can skip their meals but not their cup of coffee. There are 70 species of coffee, among which only three are cultivated. 75% of world's production of coffee is provided by Coffea arabica, about 25% by Coffea canephora, and less than 1% by Coffea liberica and others. Coffee is generally cultivated at the altitude of 1000-2000. Coffee as a whole is a complex beverage with a thousand different substances. There are more than 1000 chemical compounds present in the coffee.They can be categorised as following:

  • Aliphatic compounds

  • Carbonyl compounds

  • Sulfur containing compounds

  • Alicyclic compounds

  • Ketones

  • Aromatic benzenoid compounds

  • Phenols

  • Heterocyclic compounds

  • Furans

  • Hydrofurans

  • Pyrroles

  • Pyridines

  • Quinoxalines

  • Indoles

  • Thiophens

  • Thiophenones

  • Thiazoles

  • Oxazole

Coffee is often used as antioxidants, but most importantly coffee is a good source of chromium and magnesium that assist in controlling blood sugar by ensuring proper usage of insulin. The main chemical ingredients in coffee beans are as follows :

  • Caffeine

  • Tannin

  • Thiamin

  • Xanthine

  • Spermidine

  • Guaiacol

  • Citric acid

  • Chlorogenic acid

  • Acetaldehyde

  • Spermine

  • Putrescine

  • Scopoletin

Caffeine is the best known because of it's physiological effects that is, stimulation of the CNS, increased blood circulation,and respiration. Caffeine gives mild bitter taste to the beverage. About 10% caffeine and 6% chlorogenic acid are present in coffee. As said anything taken in excess will always be harmful,as same is with coffee. There's no doubt that coffee has many pros but there are few cons too, which have to be known by all of us.


  • Coffee helps you focus and stay alert: Moderate caffeine intake,1-6 cups a day, helps you focus and improves your mental alertness.

  • Coffee brightens your mood, helps fight depression: Caffeine stimulates CNS and boosts production of neurotransmitters like serotonin,dopamine,and noradrenaline,which elevate your mood.

  • Coffee protects your brain: High caffeine levels in your blood reduce the risk of Alzheimer disease. It also lowers risk of dementia.

  • Coffee may lower risk of Type II diabetes: Caffeine decreases your insulin sensitivity and impairs glucose tolerance, therefore reduces your risk of type II diabetes.

  • Coffee protects your body: Coffee contains lot of antioxidants, that work as little warriors fighting and protecting against free radicals within your body.

  • Coffee reduces risk of Parkinson's disease: Regular coffee drinking decreases risk of Parkinson's disease by 25%.

  • Coffee reduces risk of stroke: Reasonable consumption of coffee say 2-4 cups a day is associated with lower risk of stroke.

  • Coffee reduces risk of cancers: A study shows that coffee may decrease the risk of developing prostrate cancer in men by 20%, and endometrial cancer in women by 25%. Caffeine may also prevent developing of basal cell carcinoma,the most common type of skin cancer.

  • Coffee lowers risk of death: Studies have shown that coffee drinker's overall risk of premature death is 25% lower than if those who don't drink coffee.

  • Coffee helps you burn fat: Caffeine helps fat cells break down body fat and use it as fuel for training.

  • Coffee may help you lose weight: Coffee contains magnesium and potassium, which helps the human body use insulin,regulating blood sugar levels and reducing your craving for sugary treats and snacks.

  • Coffee boosts your physical performance: Having a cup of black coffee about an hour before workout can improve your performance by 11-12%. Caffeine increases adrenaline levels in your blood.


  • Coffee for kids, may increase bed wetting: A survey reported that caffeine consumption of 5-7 years old kids may increase bed wedding.

  • High cholesterol individuals should choose filter coffee: Coffee beans contain cafestol and kahweol, two ingredients that appear to raise LDL cholesterol levels. Filtering the coffee traps most of the LDL.

  • Pregnant women should not drink more than one cup a day: If you drink when pregnant, caffeine will also reach the fetus, and your baby is highly sensitive to caffeine. So it is better to avoid coffee during pregnancy or minimise it to one cup a day.

  • Coffee can cause insomnia and restlessness: It's the caffeine that's working here. Your recommended maximum amount of caffeine is 400mg, roughly the amount you will get from 4 cups of coffee. If you're caffeine sensitive,be careful with coffee.

  • Coffee can kill you: Yes, if you drink 80-100 cups (23litres) in a short session. This dose is lethal and will amount in 10-13g of caffeine within your body. Before you ready this point, you'll be vomiting most of it out since 23 litres of any liquid is a lot. Even drinking 23 litres of water can kill you.

  • Bad coffee can be toxic: Bad quality of coffee can have a lot of impurities in it, which can cause sickness, headache or a general bad feeling. Even one ruined bean can make your cup toxic. So buy high quality,speciality coffee to avoid this.

If you have high cholesterol, or you are caffeine sensitive, pregnant or a child, you should pay attention to coffee drinking. For others, reasonable amount coffee can be good for you.

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