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CYBORGS: FROM DC TO TRANSFORMATION OF REAL BEINGS
Arin Natania. S
Doctor of Pharmacy, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Coimbatore
Mallady Vyshnavee Sree Kavya
MS, Applied and Regulatory Toxicology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Chennai
Bachelor of Engineering ( Mech Dept ), CSI College of Engineering, Ketti, The Nilgiris
In this paper we emphasis on the cyborg in cybernetic which is a part of Artificial Intelligence. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also an academic field of study. The paper gives an idea of an artefact which is supposed to match the intelligence and behavior of a human being. Cybernetics is formally defined as the science of control and communication in animals, men and machines. Paper discusses cybernetics and how they can work with artificial intelligence. In this paper, we motivate an interesting challenger
model, cyborgs, which are either humans assisted by bots or bots assisted by humans. Since there is always a human behind these bots or a human can always be available on demand. I discuss the evaluation of cyborg technology in real world. In this paper I also include benefits and drawbacks of cyborg technology. This paper gives an idea that how cyborg differs from robots? The notion of telling humans and cyborgs apart is novel.
The interconnection and tight integration of biological information processing units and man-made computing components provides extensive information exchange between biological organisms and computing devices, which spawned cyborg intelligence. Artificial and biological intelligence begin to share common territory in providing sensation, perception, cognition, and locomotion. Many amazing results have been achieved in various areas, including animals as sensors and actuators, mind-controlled machines, neurochips, intelligent prosthesis, and neural rehabilitation. Recently, the open Cyborg Olympics were held to drive the realistic combination of biological and artificial intelligence and help disabled people better acclimate to daily life. Typical and effective approaches to implementing engineering systems and exploring research problems in cyborg intelligence are based on brain-computer (or neural-computer) integration methods. Using these methods, computers can record neural activity at multiple levels or scales, and thus decode brain representation of various functionalities and precisely control artificial or biological actuators. In recent decades, there have been continuous scientific breakthroughs regarding the directed information pathway from the brain to computers. Meanwhile, besides ordinary sensory feedback such as visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory input, computers can now encode neural feedback as optical or electrical stimuli to modulate neural circuits directly. This forms the directed information pathway from the computer to the brain. These bidirectional information pathways make it possible to investigate the key problems in cyborg intelligence. Although related research challenges cover the most fundamental problems in AI, physiology, and psychology, we focused on the computational architecture of cyborg intelligence, especially for sensorimotor processes in the brain-computer integration system. We first proposed a conceptual illustration and constructed a cognitive computational model for brain-computer integration systems. To understand neural representation in the brain, we also explored encoding and decoding principles underlying the sensorimotor loop, and then the computers implemented novel AI algorithms to enhance sensation and motor control functions of the overall brain-computer integration system. From our theoretical and technological results, we implemented cyborg rats, monkey mind control, and a rehabilitation demonstration as evaluating systems. Extensive experiments show that the philosophy concept and computation architecture of cyborg intelligence is promising for enhancing, repairing, or extending the intelligent capacity of both biological and computing units.
Cybernetics is a word coined by group of scientists lead by Norbert Wiener and made popular by Wiener's book of 1948, Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Based on the Greek "kybernetes," meaning steersman or governor, cybernetics is the science or study of control or regulation mechanisms in human and machine systems, including computers. CYBERNETICS could be thought of as a recently developed science, although to some extent it cuts across existing sciences. Cybernetics is a classification, which cuts across them all. Cybernetics is formally defined as the science of control and communication in animals, men and machines. It extracts from whatever context, that which is concerned with information processing and control. One major characteristic of Cybernetics is its preoccupation with the construction of models and here it overlaps operational research. Cybernetic models are usually distinguished by being hierarchical, adaptive and making permanent use of feedback loops. Cybernetics in some ways is like the science of organization, with special emphasis on the dynamic nature of the system being organized." Fig. 2 gives the idea about relation between Cybernetics and AI.
CYBORG IN CYBERNETICS
A Cyborg is a Cybernetic Organism, part human part machine. In this we will go through Kevin Warwick‟s amazing steps towards becoming a Cyborg. The story is one of scientific Endeavour and devotion, splitting apart the personal lives of himself and those around him. This amazing and unique story takes in top scientists from around the globe and seriously questions human morals, values and ethics. Humans have limited capabilities than machines. Humans sense the world in a restricted way, vision being the best of the senses. Humans can understand the world in only 3 dimensions and communicate in a very slow, serial fashion called speech. But question is that, can we improve it? Can we use technology to upgrade humans? The possibility exists to enhance human capabilities. To harness the ever-increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone. Kevin Warwick has taken the first step on this path, using himself as a guinea pig test subject receiving, by surgical operation, technological implants connected to his central nervous system.
CLASSIFICATION OF CYBORGS
Cyborgs are categorized into three type based on their structural and functional role play.
A. Individual Cyborgs
The term "cyborg" is used to refer to a human with bionic, or robotic, implants. Artificial objects such as prosthesis are so closely attached human bodies as to be considered as a part of one‟s body. In 1997, Philip Kennedy, a scientist and physician designed the world's first human cyborg named Johnny Ray. In 2002, Canadian Jens Naumann, also blinded in adulthood, became the first in a series of 16 paying patients to receive Dobelle's second generation implant, marking one of the earliest commercial uses of BCIs. In 2002, under the heading Project Cyborg, a British scientist, Kevin Warwick, had an array of 100 electrodes fired into his nervous system in order to link his nervous system into the Internet.
B. Animal Cyborgs
The US-based company Backyard Brains released what they refer to as "The world's first commercially available cyborg" called the RoboRoach. The project started as a University of Michigan biomedical engineering student senior design project in 2010 and was launched as an available beta product on 25 February 2011. The RoboRoach was officially released into production via a TED talk at the TED Global conference, and via the crowd sourcing website Kick starter in 2013, the kit allows students to use micro stimulation to momentarily control the movements of a walking cockroach (left and right) using a Bluetooth-enabled Smartphone as the controller.
C. Social Cyborgs
More broadly, the full term "cybernetic organism" is used to describe larger networks of communication and control. For example, cities, networks of roads, networks of software, corporations, markets, governments, and the collection of these things together. A corporation can be considered as an artificial intelligence that makes use of replaceable human components to function. People at all ranks can be considered replaceable agents of their functionally intelligent government institutions, whether such a view is desirable or not.
Conceptual Framework of Cyborg Intelligence: A Revisit
From the systematic perspective, a critical problem in cyborg intelligence research is how to merge the brain with the computer at various scales. On the basis of the similarity between brain function partition and corresponding computing counterparts, we presented a hierarchical and conceptual framework for cyborg intelligence. The biological part and computing counterparts are interconnected through information exchange, and then cooperate to generate sensation, perception, learning, memory, emotion, and other cognitive functions. We argue that this involves two key aspects: first, the cooperation between biological and AI units will output the functional units of cyborg intelligence, and second, the final form and paradigm of cyborg intelligence is determined not only by this interconnection and cooperation but also by the merging of biological and AI units.
Cyborg Intelligence: Research Progress
· Multimodal Sensory Information Fusion and Representation
· Cognitive Computational Model in Brain-Machine Collaboration
· Machine Learning-Based Methods for Brain Information Codecs
· Motor Functionality Reconstruction
· Sensation-Augmented Rat Cyborgs
· Monkey Hand-Gesture Decoding
· Mind-Controlled Rock-PaperScissors Game
Now a days, machines are becoming more universal in the artistic process itself, with computerized drawing pads replacing pen and paper, and drum machines becoming nearly as popular as human drummers. This is perhaps most notable in generative art and music. Stelarc is a performance artist who has visually probed and acoustically amplified his body.
DARPA has announced its interest in developing "cyborg insects" to transmit data from sensors implanted into the insect during the pupal stage. The insect's motion would be controlled from a Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) and could conceivably survey an environment or detect explosives and gas.
On the contrary, the enhanced cyborg "follows a principle, and it is the principle of optimal performance: maximizing output and minimizing input". Thus, the enhanced cyborg intends to exceed normal processes or even gain new functions that were not originally present. Although prostheses in general supplement lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice, bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely.
CRITICAL DEAF STUDIES
“Cyborgization” is an attempt to classify “normalization”. Hearing aids are widely used and can help assist individuals that are hard of hearing. Cochlear implants may help provide hearing in patients that are deaf due to damage to sensory hair cells in their cochlea. It is an alternative method of treatment for profoundly deaf people, mostly children.
Cyborgs have become a well-known part of science fiction literature and other media. Although many of these characters may be technically androids, they are often referred to as
cyborgs. Examples of fictional biologically based cyborgs include Iron Man, Robo Cop, Terminators, Star Wars universe, Eliminators, Johnny Mnemonic, and Terminator Salvation etc. An interesting idea is how the notion of a cyborg might change, since many of these devices use technology that is itself principally biological, such as stem cell lines in the bioreactor liver or artificial skin.
The term cyborgs not only apply to the humans, but to animals as well. Some of the best examples of such animal‟s cyborgs one from the ocean, but such research is relatively new like,
1) Cyborg Dolphin
2) Sea Cyborg
3) Cyborg Jellyfish
A blind man wearing a camera interfaced to nerve cells in brain to View images on Television artificially. Retinal implants are the modern way of healing blindness. In retina, we have light detecting rod and cone cells. And we place electrodes to do the same function. The signals are then fed to optic nerve and brain. Biological cyborg uses as human body part like as follows,
1) Touch Bionics I-Limb
2) Proprio Bionic Foot
3) Tooth and Ear Cell phone Implant
The benefits of cyborg technology are vast and are expanding, and are helping people live normal lives and in some cases give a human a better advantage physically.
· It is clear that by using cyborgs the artificial life will eventually win out against organic life since it is more durable and more efficient.
· Electronic „life‟, however one recent theory that has been bantered about lately is that the human race may have reached the saturation point for economic growth, but this is fortunate since it has arrived in time for it to work on „human growth‟, i.e. the re-engineering of the human species.
· We can graduate‟ from being victims of natural selection to masters of self-selection. It seems hard to argue against increasing human longevity, intelligence, or strength, since human beings seem to live too short a span.
· Certainly, it would be easy to utilize bio-implants that would allow people to trace the location and perhaps even monitor the condition and behavior of implanted persons.
· Harnesses the ever increasing abilities of machine intelligence, to enable extra sensory input and to communicate in a much richer way, using thought alone.
· Supplements, lost or damaged body parts with the integration of a mechanical artifice.
· Bionic implants in medicine allow model organs or body parts to mimic the original function more closely.
The Disadvantages of cyborg are:
· The critics of bioelectronics and bio computing foresee numerous potential negative social consequences from the technology. One is that the human race will divide along the lines of Biological haves and have-nots.
· People with enough money will be able to argument their personal attributes as they see fit as well as to utilize cloning , organ replacement, etc. to stave off death for as long as they wish ,while the majority of humanity will continue to suffer from hunger ,bad genes, and Infirmity.
· This would be tremendous violation of human privacy, but the creators of human biotech might see it as necessary to keep their subjects under control. Once implanted with bio-implant electronic devices, cyborg‟ might become highly dependent on the creators of these devices for their repair, recharge, and maintenance.
· It could be possible to modify the person technologically so that body would stop producing some essential substance for survival, thus placing them under the absolute control of the designer of the technology.
· Even those not spiritually motivated who still nevertheless posses the feeling that there is something within humanity which is not found in animals or machines and which makes us uniquely human, worry that the essence of our humanity will be lost to this technology.
Finally I would like to say that if the future is of intelligent robots than to protect mankind we will must need some NEOs, TERMINATORs. They all are CYBORGS. Because by making human CYBORGS we may have following extra ordinary capabilities. I think by 2100 we're going to see people able to communicate between each other by thought signals alone, so no more need for telephones, old fashioned signaling, we'll be able
to think to each other via implants. Linking oneself up via an implant to a computer, one‟s nervous system, electronic signals connected to the electronic signals in the computer - effectively mentally becoming one with the computer. This will mean movement type signals and emotional type signals can transmit from one‟s body to the computer, but also the other way. The computer will be able to affect one‟s emotionally, perhaps cheer one‟s up when anyone is depressed or cause one‟s to move when anyone didn't think about moving. It opens all sorts of other possibilities; the computer will be able to send down other information ultrasonic or infrared information on one‟s nervous system to brain. Instead of communicating by speech as we do presently, we'll be able to think to each other, simply by implants connected to our nervous system linking our brains electronically together, possibly even over the internet. We won't need the languages that we presently do; we'll need a new language of ideas and concepts in order to communicate thoughts from brain to brain.
· Sturt Russel, Peter Norvig, ―Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach‖, Third Edition PHI.
· Haugeland, J. (Ed.). (1985). Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea. MIT Press.
· Bellman, R. E. (1978). An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence: Can Computers Think? Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company.
· Charniak, E. and McDermott, D. (1985). Introduction to Artificial Intelligence. Addison-Wesley.
· N. K. Hayles, How We Became Posthuman, University of Chicago Press, 1999.
K. Warwick, QI: The Quest for Intelligence, Piatkus, 2001.
· "Cyborgs and Space" in Astronautics (September 1960), by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S.D. S. Halacy, Cyborg: Evolution of the Superman (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1965).
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